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Bibliography or References

Refer to the Sample Bibliography or References pages as you read through this section.

There is no reference style required by the Graduate College Thesis Office. However, departments may require the use of a reference style that is appropriate to the student’s program of study.

  • All theses are required to have either a bibliography or a list of references.
  • When placed at or near the end of a thesis, the references section is considered a chapter equivalent; therefore, the title of the section should be formatted like a chapter title.
  • In some scientific and engineering disciplines, the references may be placed at the end of each chapter instead of at the end of the thesis.

Inclusion of work that has been previously published by the degree candidate is a common practice in research institutions across the country, and it is permitted at the University of Illinois. In such cases, the Graduate College requires that the student state at the beginning of the chapter that the work includes previously published material.

This is accomplished by including a footnote at the bottom of the first page of the chapter in which the previously published material appears that acknowledges the previous publication, cites basic bibliographic information, and states that the copyright owner has provided permission to reprint. In scientific disciplines, it is also common for students to include material derived from a published paper with multiple authors. In such cases, the footnote must acknowledge the contribution of the other authors, including any figures, tables, or data that were not created by the author.

Students with further questions regarding copyright and the use of previously published material should refer to copyright information and resources.